Calculating Present and Future Value of Annuities

An annuity is a series of payments made at regular intervals. Generally, the term is used to explain an investment product commonly sold by insurance firms and other financial service providers.

Annuities provide a gradual stream of income paid out at regular intervals in exchange for a lump sum payment or a series of payments remodeled a time frame. Like 401(k)s, annuities provide tax-deferred investment growth for retirement income.

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The best way to calculate the current value of an annuity

The current value of an annuity refers back to the current value of future annuity payments. Understanding an annuity’s present value can enable you make informed decisions when selecting between accepting a lump sum payment or a set annuity.

The next formula is used to calculate an annuity’s present value. Take into account that is the formula for the current value of an bizarre annuity. An bizarre annuity is paid at the tip of a predetermined time period.

P = PMT x [1 – [ (1 / 1+r)^n] / r]

  • P: The annuity stream’s present value
  • PMT: The dollar amount of every payment
  • r: The interest or discount rate
  • n: The entire variety of payment occurrences

For instance, let’s say you’re offered an annuity product that gives you monthly payments of $10,000 for the subsequent 10 years in exchange for a one-time $1 million lump sum payment. This might seem to be a very good deal. In any case, $10,000 multiplied by 120 months will yield a final payout of $1,200,000, which is $200,000 greater than the lump sum payment.

Nevertheless, we could also invest that $1 million within the stock market, generating additional income since inflation will eat away at each subsequent payment. Assuming an annual rate of interest of 10%, let’s use the current value of an annuity formula to see the expected current value of the annuity payment.

$756,712 = $10,000 x [1 – [ (1 / 1+0.1)^120] / 0.1]

On this case, the current value of our annuity payment involves just below three-quarters of 1,000,000 dollars, making the lump sum payment a transparent winner. What increases the current value of an annuity? You’ll be able to increase the payment amount, the rate of interest or the payment frequency to boost an annuity’s present value.

You can too use the current value of an annuity due formula to calculate the current value of an annuity paid out or collected at first of a predetermined time period.

PV= PMT x [(1 – (1 / (1 + r) ^ n))/ r] x (1 + r)

  • PV: The annuity’s present value
  • PMT: The quantity of every payment denominated in dollars
  • r: The interest or discount rate
  • n: The entire variety of payment occurrences

The best way to calculate the long run value of an annuity

The long run value of an annuity helps individuals project how much a series of payments will probably be price at a certain point in the long run. You should utilize the next formula to calculate the long run value of an annuity:


  • P: The annuity stream’s future value
  • PMT: The quantity of every payment denominated in dollars
  • r: The interest or discount rate
  • n: The entire variety of payment occurrences

Whenever you sit right down to plan for retirement, more likely than not, you’ll calculate the long run value of an annuity. For instance, for those who can afford to take a position $1,000 a month and need to retire in 15 years, you should have $1,969,000 at the tip of the interval, assuming an rate of interest of 10%.


In the event you aim to save lots of $2 million by retirement, then you definitely’re right on the right track. In the event you’d prefer to have slightly more in your checking account or for those who’d prefer to hedge your bets with a lower rate of interest, you possibly can play with the formula by entering different numbers until you arrive at a figure you are comfortable with.

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Present vs. future value of an annuity: what is the difference?

The current value of an annuity permits you to accurately value the current price of a series of annuity payments. You should utilize this information to provide you with a money equivalent for an annuity, which in turn helps you purchase and sell annuities. This information can even help when comparing lump sum payments and future annuities.

Meanwhile, use the long run value of an annuity formula to guide your long-term goal setting. In the event you’re planning for retirement, for instance, calculating the long run value of an annuity can enable you make accurate projections for the long run.

The predominant kinds of annuities

The next section covers a very powerful annuity types. We have broken down each type into subgroups based on key characteristics. Take into account as you undergo this list that an annuity can have characteristics from multiple categories.

For instance, you should purchase a variable annuity that can also be a deferred annuity, which uses an annuity’s due payment schedule. As you learn more, mix and match different annuity types to provide you with the annuity that most closely fits you.

Based on annuity growth

The next annuity types are defined by the quantity of volatility they will experience. Annuity types with greater volatility have the potential to earn more cash, but those gains can even vanish as a result of market fluctuations. Lower volatility offers protection against a down market, but it surely also caps growth during hot markets.


A hard and fast annuity guarantees a specified rate of return in exchange for a lump sum of cash or periodic payments. Buyers of fixed annuities gain stability on the expense of doubtless higher gains.

Many older Americans purchase fixed annuities to buffer against bad years in retirement. While most younger investors are higher off with more dynamic investments that yield higher rates over the long term, the calculus shifts when retirement begins and the timeline to recuperate from a nasty market shrinks.

Fixed annuities can offer tax-deferred growth. Some annuities may be passed on to the beneficiary’s heirs under certain circumstances, akin to when the beneficiary dies before the primary payment.

Fixed index

Fixed index annuities track an underlying stock index akin to the S&P 500 or the Russel 2000. As with fixed annuities, fixed index annuities are popular with retirees. A hard and fast index annuity provides more variability than a set annuity while still protecting the beneficiary against volatile markets. Nevertheless, the stipulations established in your contract limit each your earnings and loss potential.

Fixed index annuities accomplish this by providing a floor and a ceiling on your investment returns. For instance, a contract may state that 0% marks the bottom return you possibly can get in your investment. Even when the market dips 20%, you will just break even. On the flip side, your contract might limit your investment gains to five%. Even when the market shoots up by 20%, you will only receive a 5% gain.


Variable annuities will let you save for retirement by investing in a portfolio of subaccounts. Subaccounts function similarly to mutual funds. Nevertheless, you can’t easily research subaccount performance through a fund tracker. Variable annuities offer the potential for greater gains in comparison with fixed indexes and stuck annuities. Nevertheless, this annuity type doesn’t limit losses, which can deter some investors.

Based on the time of payout

You’ll be able to broadly divide annuities into two categories based on once you begin receiving payments.


Annuities that supply immediate payouts convert a one-time payment (sometimes often known as a single premium annuity) into an ongoing payment stream. Payments last for a predetermined time frame, typically between five years and the client’s death. Immediate annuities best fit the needs of people near retirement, with payments starting throughout the first 12 months after one-time payment is accomplished.


Deferred annuities function more like 401(k)s in that policyholders make regular premium contributions over a protracted period before they begin receiving payments. For instance, a 50-year-old individual may make annual payments on a deferred annuity for 15 years. At 65, the person will begin to receive payment advantages. Since annuities are tax-deffered, they’lll only need to pay taxes on the payouts as received.

Based on the payment period

Annuities may be divided into two further subcategories based on when the payment occurs.

Strange annuities

Strange annuities are paid at the tip of a predetermined period. This era may very well be weekly, monthly, quarterly, annually or at another regular time interval.

Annuities due

Annuities due are paid at first of a predetermined period.

Since the time value of cash dictates that cash in the long run is less precious than the identical amount of cash in the current, bizarre annuities could also be less desirable than annuities due when receiving payments. Moreover, when making payments, bizarre annuities could also be more desirable than annuities due.

Multi-year guaranteed annuity potential

This sort of annuity operates very like a CD. When you sign a contract with an insurance provider, you deposit a premium on which the insurance company pays interest often at a predetermined rate. After the contract completes, you receive each the principal and the accrued interest.

Most contracts last somewhere between three to 10 years. While the contract is in force, chances are you’ll not withdraw your money unless you pay a penalty or “give up fee.” Some contracts have exceptions allowing you to withdraw partial sums at fixed intervals. Chances are you’ll also give you the chance to take out a loan using your annuity as collateral.

Lifetime annuities

Many insurance firms sell lifetime annuities to retirement-age individuals. Because the name suggests, lifetime annuities last until the client’s death. Sometimes, lifetime annuities could also be transferred to the client’s spouse upon the annuity holder’s death.

Insurance firms calculate lifetime annuity payment schedules using complex actuarial tables. Lifetime annuities remain popular with individuals who value security. Single premium lifetime annuities may be purchased with a single lump sum.

Fixed period annuities

Fixed-period annuities provide annuity payments for a predetermined period, akin to 10 years. After the period expires, the annuity stops paying out. The annuity may even stop upon the beneficiary’s death unless the contract allows them to transfer the annuity to an heir. Unlike lifetime annuities there is a risk that chances are you’ll outlive your fixed annuity, leaving you without income in your old age.

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The importance of annuity valuation

Calculating the worth of an annuity can enable you make informed decisions about major life changes, akin to when you possibly can afford to retire or which annuity product to purchase. Whether you utilize an annuity formula or an annuity calculator, proper valuation can enable you project future money flow and estimate the payments it is advisable to make to satisfy your financial goals.

Determine the value of your investments

When determining the current value of an annuity, you must take the style of annuity into consideration. Remember, annuities can belong to multiple categories, and every category can influence the annuity’s total value. For instance, deferred annuities won’t pay out for years, while immediate annuities begin to pay out as soon because the policy’s in force. Take into account the time value of cash, and be sure you use the right formula when calculating your annuity investment.

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